Journée internationale de la biodiversité : Le plaidoyer en faveur d’une prise de conscience collective

La protection de la biodiversité est progressivement devenue un défi quotidien au Cameroun, à travers  l’initiation d’un certain nombre d’actions menées en faveur de la conservation et l’utilisation durable de la riche biodiversité du pays.

Engagé dans la lutte contre la désertification et la dégradation de terres, le Cameroun a ainsi reboisé près de 30 000 hectares de terrain, avec plus de 03 millions de plants mis en terre. Près de 100 000 foyers ont été améliorés et fabriqués, distribués pour atténuer la pression sur les ressources forestières pour le bois de chauffe. Egalement, la stratégie REDD+ a été élaborée et est en train de se mettre en place. Il s’agit là, de réduire les émissions de gaz à effet de serre dus à la déforestation et à la dégradation des terres plus le reboisement pour augmenter les stocks carbone. On compte également la restauration des écosystèmes des mangroves, avec plus de 7000 hectares reboisés et 5000plants mis en terre. Et la gestion durable de la biodiversité, avec plus de 1 400 certificats de conformité environnementale entre 2011 et 2020 dont le suivi permet d’atténuer, d’éviter et de compenser les pollutions et la dégradation de l’environnement.

En matière de restauration, le Cameroun s’est engagé à restaurer 12 000 000 de terres dégradées en 2017, à travers l’initiative pour la restauration des paysages forestiers africains (AFRI100). « Des efforts considérables ont été menés dans le cadre des écosystèmes fragiles de mangroves, des berges de la Bénoué et du Sahel, à travers l’opération Sahel vert. Ceci a permis notamment de restaurer au total, près de 37 500 hectares de sites dégradés », apprécie le ministre de l’Environnement de la Protection de la Nature et du développement durable, Hélé Pierre.

Dans la même optique, il est prévu la restauration de 600 000 Hectares de terres et paysages dégradés à travers le bambou et les autres produits forestiers non ligneux (PFNL) locaux, dans le cadre du projet de restauration des paysages dégradés au Cameroun (Projet TRI). Pour le démarrage de ce projet, environ 150 000 plants de bambous et PFNL locaux ont été produits entre 2019 et 2020.

Aujourd’hui, le pays enregistre 22% de superficie totale d’Aires Protégées, « bien au-delà de l’objectif global fixé à 17% », précise Hélé Pierre marquant le progrès.

Mais au regard des 20 objectifs d’Aichi  (du nom de la ville japonaise où ces objectifs ont été adoptés), il en ressort que 03 sur 20 objectifs fixés ont été presque réalisés en 2020. Ces objectifs sont relatifs à la création des ires protégées, la sensibilisation des acteurs et la gestion communautaire de la biodiversité ; 15 objectifs sur 20, ont été amorcés avec des progrès « louables mais insuffisants ». Ceux-ci sont liés aux sauvegardes environnementales et sociales, à l’accès et au partage des avantages découlant de l’exploitation des ressources génétiques et la restauration des terres ; 02 objectifs sur 20, n’ont pas été réalisés à l’échéance. Ces objectifs sont relatifs à la comptabilité nationale sur la biodiversité et la payement basé sur la performance REDD+.

Malgré tous ces efforts, force est de constater que le bilan de la décennie qui s’est écoulée indique une tendance continue à l’appauvrissement de la biodiversité au Cameroun, comme à l’échelle mondiale. Ce constat est clairement ressorti  dans le 6èùe rapport national de la biodiversité du Cameroun, publié en 2018.

L’année 2021 représente le début de la décennie 2021-2030 dénommée, décennie des Nations Unies pour la restauration. Le thème de la célébration de cette année est « Nous faisons partie de la solution # pour la nature ».

Carole AMBASSA

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